Tips of the Month

Great Ideas
Building audiences, fund-raising, costumes, sets & more

May 2016

Going Wireless
Round caningMany costume books (especially older ones) recommend wire for giving shape to corsets or crinolines.  While heavyweight piano wire can be used, a cheaper, easier-to-find (and more workable) replacement is the round cane sold for caning chairs. The one-quarter-inch variety is ideal for many costume purposes (and can be found on eBay and many craft sites).  Wet it until it can be bent without breaking, then use it in those situations that call for wire.

Pause for Reflection
Consider installing in some backstage area a mirror and two gelled spotlights to approximate the general lighting for the play.  That way actors can check their makeup before going onstage.  To reduce heat and save energy, put the instruments on a switch.

Special Handling
Because if its smooth, hard surface, Masonite is sometimes used for set construction or as a floor covering for performances.  However, this composition sheet material is also un-flexible and brittle.  If you plan to nail Masonite to anything, first drill small holes through which the nails can be driven.  Don't use Masonite for curved surfaces; it may crack when bent.  Use doorskin instead.

Face the Music
In a musical, the stage manager calls lighting cues timed to specific measures in the score.  The best approach is to keep a copy of the score handy and make cue markings in it.  However, if you can't read music, you may be able to get around the problem by using a stopwatch.  Rather than listening for a specific note, you time how far into the music the cue occurs and then take the cue from the stopwatch.  This will work if the music is a recording, or if the conductor follows the same tempos each performance.  Another way is to make a recording of the music in which the cue falls.  Play is over and over, listening carefully.  Soon you begin to recognize the component parts of the music, and .you may find it easier to locate the point where the cue occurs--perhaps after a certain repetition of notes from a trumpet, or a drum roll.  Always consider asking the musical director for help.  He or she knows the music well and can call your attention to something that may act as the signal you need.

Go Exotic
When shopping for costume fabrics, try to find the most interesting and unusual ones you can.  Any costume is more attractive (and realistic) if the audience can't immediately recognize the material used.

Stamp of Approval
When sending out personalized letters--for publicity, fundraising or any otherpurpose--always use stamps, even if you have a postal meter or can use someone else's.  Postal meters are efficient, but stamps suggest individual labor andattention. Studies indicate that people open stamped letters first, and that the message inside may be viewed more favorably.

Rag Rolling
Stippling (applying paint by pushing the ends of the paintbrush bristles against the painting surface) is a common technique for texturing setsurfaces.  However, it is slow when dealing with very large areas.  You can get the same effect with less work by using an 18-inch square of material. Wearing rubber gloves, dip the cloth into the paint, squeeze out and then roll it over the painting surface using the palms of your hands.  Change direction occasionally.  Experiment with different textures of material--burlap, canvas,muslin.  Rag rolling may need a fine spattering of paint afterward to tone down the effect.

Do It Again
When blocking movement in a musical, don't forget to allow for repetition. Spectators carry images of movement in their minds which are reinforced if the movements are repeated.  Just as the musical itself has recurring tunes in overture, performance and reprise, choreography benefits from occasionally repeating a movement sequence.  Audiences actually find it pleasurable if not overdone.  To get the most benefit from this, have dancers perform two or more of the same movements, one after the other, and then move on to something else. Some choreographers slow a movement down to ensure that it is noticed, but repeating it can be a far more effective device.

The Eyes Have It
Flat front lighting flattens an actor's features, and is thus usually avoided. However, it can be useful when an unavoidably high key light has made an actor's eyes disappear into shadows cast by the upper part of the eyesocket.  Front lighting at a flat angle takes care of this problem.  Be careful not to set the intensity level too high or ugly shadows will be cast on the upstage part of the set.

A Director's Touch
Sometimes actors have a clear idea of what is needed in a particular scene, but are technically or emotionally blocked from doing it.  A director can help by taking time out to try different ways of telling the story, perhaps through gesture or movement alone.  Remember that all acting is storytelling, and actors are frustrated when unable to tell the story they know.  Finding physical ways to get the message across helps them as they work with the playwright's words.

Recitals Rock
Music recitals are commonplace.  But what not acting recitals?  A group ofactors could easily put together a performance of favorite writing, prose,poetry and scenes.  Choose material because you like it and think the audience might, too.  Such recitals give performers a chance to spread their wings and try things they might not otherwise.  In a company with many performers but a short season, a recital provides additional performance opportunities and a wayt o show off the versatility of your members.  Live music of some sort would make an effective bridge between the various elements.  And you don't have to call it a recital, if you don't want to.


April 2016

Backup Plan
It's a good idea to store copies of computer backup files in a building other than with your computer.  That way you'll be sure your records--particularly your mailing list and financial records--are safe in the event of a file or other disaster.  One company we know went through a fire.  All paper records in their metal filing cabinets were scorched and smoke-filled, but otherwise readable.  All computer files on a backup hard drive were lost when the unit melted.  Suggestions:  Use a portable hard drive to back up daily and take it home, or use one of the many options for cloud backup, in which files are uploaded to a server via the Internet.

If you find your set design is too symmetrical--a problem that plagues less experienced designers--here's a trick that may help in an emergency.  Take the ground plan and turn it slightly so that the center line of the design crosses the center line of the stage at an angle.  By doing so you increase visual tension, often with an improvement of dramatic quality. It's worth a try.

The Other Side
Use the back of mailings to your advantage.  A recent survey by a direct marketing firm discloses that three-quarters of people turn their envelopes over to open them, giving you another chance to grab the reader's attention and to tout the offerings inside.

Sounds Familiar
If you are in charge or marketing or publicizing your shows be sure to read the plays in question and talk about them with the directors.  Surprisingly, many people in these positions never do this--even though it's difficult to sell something to someone else when you don't really know the product.  Knowing the play and the director's concept can suggest story ideas for local media.  It will also prepare you to answer questions from the media.

Prompt Response
Prompters at rehearsals should try to look at the actors as often as possible while following the text with the fingers.  If you read along without glancing up your tendency will be to prompt every time there is a pause. Some actors may ask for a prompt.  Others will not want to break out of character and may just look up in your direction.  Every time there is a silence, look up at the actors to see whether they are acting or have really dried up.  Mark all acting pauses in the script to remind yourself not to prompt at these moments.

Heated Rhetoric
Create a "fire code" word or phrase.  That way if there is a fire you can signal others without alarming the audience.  If the stage crew can handle the situation, there may be no need to concern your patrons.  If the fire does require evacuating the theater, you will gain a few precious minutes to organize your staff to handle the situation and avoid panic.
Start with a Bang
For an offstage gunshot, a starting pistol and blanks should be used.  It's a good idea to have a spare pistol available and loaded in case of failure.  Always keep fire arms and blanks locked safely away.  Don't allow cast or crew to play with them.  Fired at close range, a blank can still injure someone's hearing; ear plugs may be necessary for the person who fires the pistol night after night.  In some communities, some pistols (even when using blanks) may need a license--consult your local police if in doubt.

Color It Right
When working with lighting gels (color filters), remember that certain colors cancel each other out and some complement others--especially darker colors.  Remember that most colors are not pure.  For example, purple has blue and red elements, and green may contain a lot of blue.  These elements will affect how the color looks when projected on people, costumes and sets.

Sounds Good
With recorded sound effects, remember that the human brain is good at distinguishing the direction a sound comes from if it is a high frequency, but not if it is a low one.  When setting up speakers, listen to a variety of effects before deciding on final placement. If the speakers are built in, you may need to adjust frequency levels for different sounds when you create the final tracks.

When planning a mailer, it's a good idea to make paper dummies on the specified paper weights you plan to use.  Many people overlook the weight of the piece and how much the postage will end up costing until it's too late.  If you are planning a mailing, take the time to go to the post office with a paper dummy of the job and have them weigh it on their scales.  This way you'll know ahead of time if your piece is overweight, and you can make some changes. 


March 2016

Lighting the Way
Many theaters have hallways that lead from the dressing rooms or green room to the stage.  During performance, the hall lights are turned off, often making the journey a hazardous one for actors in a hurry between costume changes.  A simple way to light the path is the use of photoelectric night lights.  These plug into any wall outlet and turn on automatically when the other lights are turned off.  These lights also are useful in other places where ambient lighting is likely to dim during performance.  

Up Against a Brick Wall
When painting a set to represent a brick wall, make sure that some bricks are shown more clearly than others.  To illustrate every brick equally makes for an overly busy or distracting wall unit.  An overall impression is all that is really necessary.

Know the Ropes
If your theater uses rope for rigging, inspect it over its complete length on a regular basis.  This is best done by unrigging it and inspecting, by hand or eye, its entire length.  Replacing rope is expensive, but replacing a life is impossible.

The Color of Money
Check with your quick print shop to see if they offer special prices for certain colors on certain days.  (This is not the case with color copies, however.) It's easier for a printer to run several jobs once a color is set up (presses have to be washed down when a color is changed).  If your print shop doesn't offer discounts on particular days, ask if you can get a price break by scheduling your job with a similar one to avoid the extra cost of press set-up.  While you're at it, ask your printers for swatch books of their house stocks.  These are papers of equivalent quality to brand name papers, but far less expensive.  You'll save ordering time as well.

Building Designs
Morris Mechanic Theater (1967)If you plan to design a new theater, know that laws restrict your ability to borrow ideas from another theater or building. Architectural designs embodied in buildings quality for protection under U.S. copyright law, explicitly adding architectural works to the type of works protected by the Copyright Act. The law explicitly entitles the owner of a copyright in original building plans--usually the architect or firm that designed the plans--to enjoin and recover damages from anyone who designs a building that is identical or substantially similar to a copyrighted design. The law applies to any work created on or after December 1, 1990--and any work that of that date was unconstructed and was embodied in unpublished plans or drawings, provided that the building was constructed by December 31, 2002.

Put a Lid On It
To pour paint with less mess, clean a lid from a used-up gallon paint can.  Punch out a 1" x 2" hole about one inch from the edge of the lid, using a metal chisel.  Use this lid on the can you're pouring from.  When you're done, replace the original lid and clean the punched lid for the next time.

Hanging Around
If you need something on which to hang lengths of cable, hose or rope, try an old car rim wheel mounted on a wall.  (Be sure to clean it well first!)

Proof Positive
When a proof of a brochure or flyer must be circulated to and approved by several people, don't circulate the same copy to each person in turn.  This may result in people trying to "outdo" each other by finding "mistakes" and making suggestions.  Instead, give each person their own copy and tell them you will coordinate their comments.  You'll get fewer unnecessary changes. It's faster, too.


February 2016

Shady Doings
Costumes may be shaded or highlighted in order to give the garments more dimension and increase their sculpted effect--just as makeup is used for the same purpose on the actor's face.  Shading may be done lightly and realistically, so that the garments look completely natural, or with strong contrasts for a more stylized look.  Some costumers use spray leather dyes, usually in brown or gray.  Others use liquid fabric dyes in a spray bottle or atomizer.  In small areas, you can use a brush or sponge, blending carefully for a subtle effect.  

Cold Storage
To get the sharpest possible point on an eyebrow or makeup pencil, put it in a backstage refrigerator--in the coldest spo--for about 10 minutes, then sharpen with a single-edged razor blade.  

In the Know
When holding auditions, it's a good idea to post information about the production at the entrance to the building or room where the auditions are scheduled.  Try to anticipate what actors would want to know about your show, including the rehearsal schedule, performance schedule, what parts are being auditioned, and what pages of the script will auditioners be asked to read.  Posting this information will save having to repeat it verbally throughout the audition period.  This same information should be available on your website.
Getting Real
To capture the appropriate walk and posture of the character you are portraying, wear character shoes in rehearsal and make use of all costume accessories.  They are part of the action and help define your character.
No Reflection On You
You can tone down reflections from an onstage mirror by applying a light coat of Vaseline to the glass, and it's almost invisible.  (A thin layer of soap also cuts glare, but it's obvious if the glass is in full view of the audience.)

Getting Technical
When you encounter problems in technical rehearsals, give priority to those that affect performers--costume and scene changes and props. One simple reason is that lighting and scenery problems can be more easily solved when no one else is around. More importantly, however, actors need to gain confidence in their use of props and costumes, and with how set changes will affect their entrances and exits. Once secure in this, an actor can concentrate on giving a good performance.

Sounds Good
If you are going to use a number of prerecorded sound effects and/or music in a play, it's a good idea to have a rough copy to be used in rehearsals so that the actors, stage manager and director all get used to working with the sound cues. The rehearsal copy can be done quite simply, without the fine tuning that will be needed for performance. (The rehearsal tape will also help make sure cues are appropriate.)

New Uses for Household Stuff
In a pinch, you can use plastic lace tablecloths cut to shape for elaborate lace collars. And cellulose sponges make good rehearsal props to represent any number of small items--they are lightweight, washable, and come in many different sizes.


January 2016

Taking Note
Writing a noteIf you attend a performance by another theatre company and are impressed with an actor's performance or a designer's work, make a point of writing them a note, praising their work.  The contact may help in getting that person to work with your company in the future. If the theatre allows backstage visitors, you can deliver the note in person. If not, you can hand the note to an usher or the house manager, and have it delivered.

Get It All Down
A rehearsal log--kept by the director, assistant director, or stage manager--is an excellent way to keep track of many things, including the answer the question, "How did we ever get ourselves into this predicament, anyway?" (or, better, "How did we overcome problems and end up with a magnificent show?")  In a loose-leaf notebook--perhaps the one in which you keep the working script--dedicate a sheet of note paper for each rehearsal.  You might include such information as cast members who are late or absent, cast changes, scenes that were blocked or run and the number of times the scenes were run, delays and causes, any failure to run a scheduled scene and any out-of-the- ordinary event such as an accident, mechanical problem, argument, etc.  You can also use the log to keep track of miscellaneous items for follow-up, such as a needed prop or change in costume.  A log also comes in handy when doing a "post mortem" on the production; it's easy to forget all the bits and pieces that go into making a show.

Lighting Cues
If you are designing lights for a production, drop by rehearsals from time to time rather than sitting through one entire rehearsal.  A series of short random visits will gradually build up a feeling for the whole production as rehearsals progress, rather than remembering the play frozen at the moment of one long visit.  You'll also find that frequent visits inspire confidence in the director and actors--and forgiveness if things don't go smoothly in technical rehearsal.

Audition Challenge
When another actor upstages you in an audition reading, use it.  Register your awareness--with humor--of the situation.  Then be willing to compete.  If the actor invents some bit of business or an imaginary prop, acknowledge it and work with it.  Otherwise, all attention will be diverted from your performance.

One Voice
Choose one member of your company to be media spokesperson, and refer any questions from electronic or print media to that person.  That way you can be certain that you will have a consistent profile and that facts are given accurately.  Obviously, your spokesperson should be chosen with care.  You will need someone who knows the company well, understands the dynamics of your membership, and is easy to get hold of.

Narrowing the Focus
Sometimes it's best to rehearse an actor separately when introducing complicated bits of business.  Working out such details in public can cause feelings of inadequacy and undermine confidence.  It can also hold up rehearsal.

Advice at Your Fingertips
Maintain a contact file with names, addresses and phone numbers of people who may be helpful in your theater work.  These can be kept either on 3" x 5" cards or on your computer, or smartphone, but the purpose is the same--to have advice or help at your fingertips.  The names might include actors, directors, designers, technicians, costume builders, equipment suppliers and prop sources.  For example, each time you hear that someone has a particular item that might be useful as a prop at some point, put it in your file. 

Insurance Policy
Make sure that volunteer stage hands know that they are not to shift sets without prior briefing.  Often, sets are complex and potentially fragile.  In other cases, rigging or drapes may be torn by someone who doesn't understand the steps that must be taken before shifting.

Breaking Away
When making breakaway furniture, use just enough white glue to hold the joints together.  Use butt joints only, no nails or screws.  If you want a specific joint to break on a chair, for example, build the prop out of balsa or basswood and make all joints strong except the one you wish to break.  For the weak joint, glue wooden match sticks to hold the two pieces together.  This makes it fast and easy to reset them and use the prop again.

Keep It Real
If you need an offstage crashing sound of some sort, don't suppose you can drop anything to get the effect.  Our webmaster saw a production where someone supposedly tried to hang himself from an offstage tree.  According to the plot, the limb broke and he fell to the ground with the branch.  However, while the effect certainly was loud enough, it was obviously the metallic sound of several folding chairs being knocked over.  A prerecorded effect would have provided the crack of the limb, followed by the thud of the branch and the would-be victim.


December 2015

Getting It Together
Give some thought to organizing your makeup kit, keeping like items together as much as possible.  If it's not easy to determine what color or type an item is, print a one-word description on a small adhesive label and attach to the item.  You can also use small color dots (blue, red, yellow, etc.) to label a series of makeup products that go together (for example, cake, lipstick, eyeliner, etc. in the same color family).

What's in a Name
Some companies don't use the word "auditions." Instead they have "readings" for casting the next play--a way of making the experience seem a bit less stressful.

Do Your Research
Sometimes 17th and 18th century comedies are mistakenly directed as if they were pure old comedy farce. True, Moliere's plays, for example, are farcical, but they are also social satires.  His characters may at times act ridiculous, but he also means them to be believable, multidimensional human beings.  Likewise, Restoration or Georgian comedies reflect a time when people took their social pursuits very seriously. People gossiped, flirted, gamed and dueled with a vengeance.  At the same time, both masters and servants prided themselves on the gracefulness of their behavior; bawdy behavior in public was considered boorish.  (One could, however, say bawdy things in private--if one did it cleverly.) Fashions in clothes, social manners, music, art literature, drink and food are all well-documented.  Much of the fun in creating characters in these plays is learning about these elements and working with them, whether director or actor.

Safety First
When using a stroboscope to create a series of jerky movements similar to early silent movies, use the effect sparingly.  It can induce nausea or even trigger brain seizures in some members of the audience.  To avoid these problems, most authorities advise that flash rates not exceed eight per second. Many theatres run a warning in the program, or post it at all entrances to the house--or make it part of pre-show announcements.

Making It Easy
If possible, leave the center back of women's costumes open to the hips, to be fastened after the actor is inside.  This way, the actor can just step into the costume.  Even if some of the clothes have to go over the head, there is still plenty of space so makeup doesn't rub off and hairstyles aren't mussed.

Are You Covered?
If you are involved in opening a show in a rented facility that has recently been converted into a theatre, ask the management if local regulations have been checked.  City regulations dictate the number of people allowed in the building (audience, actors and crew), the number of off-street parking spaces, and even the amount of restroom space.  Check these things early on--or you may find yourself closing before you open.

Media Savvy
You've spoken to a newspaper or television station, found there was some interest in your company, sent materials, but you've heard nothing after three weeks.  Do you call?  Write again?  Contact someone else?  There is no universal answer, but if you haven't had a response after several weeks, it's a good idea to call and ask if the materials were received and if there is still an interest in a story.  Sometimes the material has not made its way to the right desk.  Sometimes it has, but has got buried.  And sometimes, the person in charged has changed his or her mind.  It's always better to know where you stand. And if they say no, be sure to thank them and tell them you'll get in touch again when you have something you think they can use.

News That Sits Well
In the newsletter of one state's theatre association, we find that among the perks of membership of one of its companies is "a free cushion for all performances!"


November 2015

Return on Investment
Some theater companies find that, instead of throwing away set decorations or furniture made for stage use, a well-publicized sale of such items once a year can be a money-maker.

There's Always a Next Time
Suggest that your production people start a "next time" file.  Put all materials and information about a specific task in a separate folder, then put a piece of bright colored paper at the front of the folder on which you jot notes about what could be done better next time you have the same
responsibility.  Alternatively, scan as much as you can, saving the documents in PDF format, and storing a copy locally and also on another server. Material that can't be scanned can be put into folders and stored separately.

Shop Talk

  • Often you'll find a scrap strip of quarter-inch plywood that is eight feet long and only a few inches wide.  Don't throw it away.  Instead, use it as a straightedge for drawing lines on other sheets.
  • If you are using cardboard to cover the front of a curved set piece, use a spray bottle to spray water on the convex (outer) side of the curve.  This allows you to bend it without buckling or cracking; fasten while still damp.
  • If you save platforms and stair units, store them with any padding or canvas covering intact--when you use them again, this ready-to use covering could come in handy.
  • If you have to make pencil marks on finished scenery (to show where hinges or other items are to be installed), press a piece of masking tape into place at the spot where the mark is to be made.  Then pencil directly onto the tape. When you're done, the tape can be removed without damaging the paint.

Picture This
When taking publicity photos of a production, try to limit the number of people in a shot to four or less (duos are always good).  The simpler the photograph the more likely it is to be noticed.

All In a Day's Work
A volunteer, like any other worker, needs a job description.  Without a job description, volunteers can easily get in over their heads, or may end up doing too little to satisfy your needs.  The description should include the qualities you are looking for as well as the responsibilities of the position--this helps the volunteer, as well as the person who supervises their work.  [AACT members can access more helpful information in articles on volunteer management in our Resource Library]


October 2015

Makeup RoundsSmall Wonder
For quick paint touch-ups, use cotton makeup rounds. These round cotton pads, about the size of a silver dollar, won’t shed. Use them to apply dabs of paint, oil or paint. You can find them at drugstores and discount stores, as well as online.   The ones shown at right are the most basic (and thinnest), and will do for most jobs (click image for larger view).  Thicker pads are also available, although more expensive.

The Power of We
Whether you’re a director, board president, or chief administrative officer of your theatre company, take a tip from the Harvard Business Review, and motivate your team with “we,” not “I.” Using first-person plurals and second-person pronouns such as we, us, and you—rather than the first-person singular pronouns I, me and my—show that you are focused on what you and your team can achieve together, rather than on what you need from them.  It also helps shift your perspective and makes you more aware of what others need.

Getting the Word Out
If you can put together dramatic or musical snippets, or even a mini-version of a recent show, many civic, school and church groups may be willing to pay a nominal fee to have you demonstrate your capabilities.  More important, use the opportunity to publicize your group and upcoming production and get names for your mailing list.

Flat-Out Simple
Cardboard often warps or buckles when painted.  To avoid this, paint the first side and while it is still wet, paint the second side.  If one side won't be seen from the audience, you can use leftover paint on it.

The Secret's in the Braid
Ever wonder how professional dancers breeze through the most complicated routines, without giving hats a second thought, while your performers  can barely keep a flower in their hair during action scenes or dance numbers?  The secret is "horsehair braid," a type of braided nylon available at online millinery supply houses or large bridal shops.  Purchase 1/2: or 5/8" braid in all the basic hair colors.  Sew a piece matching each dancer's hair color along the entire bottom edge of crows, tiaras and caps; for flowers, wrap pale green braid in two or three places along the stems.  Make a curl in the performer's hair at each point of attachment (the sides and center, for a larger headpiece) and criss-cross with two flat bobby pins.  Finally, use as many thin v-shaped hairpins as necessary to secure the headpiece in place.

No More Split Ends
Because they are repeatedly tied and untied, the ends of lash lines often become frayed.  If you use cotton lines, dip the ends into white glue and press them firmly into a compact shape.  If you use nylon or polyester rope, seal the ends by melting them slightly in the flame of a pocket lighter.  Allow the rope to cool before using.

Strong and Thump-less
To make a strong walking stick, use a hardwood banister rod (used to construct stairway rails).  A rubber tip attached to the end will keep it from thumping on the stage floor.


September 2015

Bustle in a Hustle
If you're doing a Victorian play and need bustles, consider using ski or bicycle packs for the purpose.  Sometimes called “fanny packs,” these consist of a nylon sack or bag attached to a belt of the same material that straps around the waist.  Designed to carry small items, for costume purposes, you fill the bags with crumpled newspaper.  The actress then buckles the lightweight unit on, with the filled sack at the back.  The costume is slipped on over the unit and the result is a convincing bustle effect.

Audience Development
One way to recruit new audiences is to schedule special low-priced performances—like 99-cent previews or "pay-what-you-can" matinees.  Some theatres offer these specials in return for the patron’s email address, while others hand out a special “Welcome to Our Theatre” brochure , with information on the current or upcoming season, contact numbers, etc.

Tying One On
Monofilament fishing line is transparent, strong and relatively inexpensive, and is ideal for suspending lightweight scenic elements in front of light backdrops, or for securing items that might shift during scene changes.  It comes in several different thicknesses, each clearly marked as to how much weight it can withstand—typically ranging from 8 to 60 pounds.  When hanging from above, you also can add another piece stretching from from the bottom of the item back to the wall, to keep the item from swinging.  This can be helpful for lobby displays, as well.

On the Way Up
If your theatre company is working its way up from the bottom, capitalize on the underdog principle when fundraising.  Studies suggest that people tend to support the underdog.  Just make clear that your organization is strong, with a clear plan for the future—donors like to know their gifts will be used wisely.

What’s Underfoot
If carpeting or carpet padding on stairs or platforms doesn't look right for the period or place, try using sheets of heavy corrugated cardboard stapled in place.  The cardboard can be painted or covered with canvas and then painted.  

Design Sense
When creating a brochure or web page, avoid using many small photographs, which designers say detract from rather than enhance visual communication.  Ideally, use one strong photograph, but if you have two or more photographs, make sure that one of them is dominant.  Note that square photographs lack visual interest; use other rectangular shapes with a mixture of horizontal and vertical orientation. 

Share and Share Alike
Consider the possibility of shared rehearsal space with another theater or theaters in your area.  Ideally you need at least two rooms to avoid conflicts for space, but the cost of rental for a two-room space is typically far less than for two separate spaces, when the expense is shared between companies.

There’s a Catch
If you use magnetic catches for onstage doors or cupboards, you can reduce the amount of "stick" the actor needs to overcome by taping over part of the metal plate to which the magnet sticks.  

Short and Sweet
When preparing a direct mail or fundraising letter, keep the first sentence short.  This signals that the letter will be easy to read.  Also limit paragraphs to no more than three or four sentences.  Longer paragraphs turn off readers.

Room with a View
To suggest glass in a window, stretch rolled window screening over the back of the opening.  It suggests the glint of glass without the weight, glare, or danger of breaking.

In the Know
Consider making available a glossary of your company's particular jargon and slang for volunteers and new members.  This helps them more quickly understand memos, discussions and special projects.    The extends to abbreviations for local businesses, government offices, or organizations.

No More Peek-a-Boo
When repainting a set, if old paint bleeds through the new, allow the paint to dry.  Then cover the area with a coat of white glue, thinned with a little water.  After the glue dries, try painting again.  This usually works, although occasionally two coats of glue may be necessary.


August 2015

The Public Eye
If you want to gain positive recognition for your company, create a service award to be given annually to the resident who makes the most contributions to your community, or to the arts in your community.  By being associated with this award, your organization gains publicity and prestige.

4 Questions for Fundraisers
1) If you had only one donor and he or she gave you $50,000 every year, how would you write to that person?  2) How much would you want that donor to feel fully part of what you're doing?  3) Why not treat every donor as if he or she were a $50,000 donor?  4) How can you go wrong with this approach?

The Print Calendar
Plan to have materials printed at times when printers are less busy.  For example, avoid school openings, the beginning of a new year and major holidays?  Reason: you can expect to receive lower bids when printers aren't busy.

It Doesn't Hurt to Ask
For its production of Rumors, set in an upscale New York home, one community theatre managed to get a donation of an entire coordinated set of furniture.  The head of the production crew sent letters to furniture stores in the area, asking for help in exchange for complimentary tickets and an advertisement in the program. The manager of a local furniture rental firm responded with tables, chairs, a sofa, bar, and other elegant pieces--and they delivered and picked up, as well.


July 2015

Capture the Moment
If you're a director, instead of writing down your notes to cast and crew during a rehearsal, try using a hand-held digital recorder.  Reason: You can talk faster than you (or an assistant, if you have one) can write.  Also, handwritten notes are often dashed off quickly and in poor lighting, so aren't always readable. If you prefer to give notes immediately after rehearsal, attach a headphone to the recorder and listen to the playback, using the pause buttons to advance to each taped note in sequence. If you want to post written notes on a bulletin board, there's more work, since you'll need to transcribe them.  The good news: You will have had a bit of time to reflect on the rehearsal itself, so some of the notes may be eliminated, while others can be rephrased to make them more useful to the actors or technical staff.

Costume Help
If you need people to sew costumes but can't find anyone, ask a local fabric store to enclose a flyer (which you provide) in each customer's bag. The flyer should be short and to the point, telling of your need, with a phone
number and contact person clearly stated.  Similar specialty stores might do the same for flyers listing other personnel needs.  (Be sure to give the store a mention in your printed program or in the lobby).
Eyes and Ears
Do you have someone in your company who wants to work hard but has no specific theatrical talents?   Consider making them a production ombudsman.  So often during rehearsals or performances,  there is confusion or unhappiness
about any number of things.  And, as it so often happens, the director or stage manager doesn't hear about it until someone--or something--explodes.   Call your volunteer "assistant to the director" or "production coordinator" or
whatever you will, but their basic purpose is to be the director's eyes and ears backstage, and to make sure things flow smoothly.  You can also make this person the directorial "gofer," put them in charge of the backstage coffee pot,
and hand them any number of other small chores.   Warning: Pick your person carefully.  The job is not that of tattletale.   This is a sensitive position for a dedicated, caring person.

Green Room 'Emergency' Kit
An "Emergency" Kit is a great thing to have backstage at all performances. The kit might include an ironing board and iron, safety pins, needles and a wide variety of thread, glue, shoe polish and brushes, fabric bonding tape, and
other items.  Explain to the cast what it's for and impress on them to return everything to the kit after they've used it.  Better yet, appoint someone to dispense materials from the kit as needed.  That way they can re-stock the supplies as they run out.

Getting There
"A play is action," writes David Ball in his book, Backwards and Forwards. Why do you think actors are called actors?" From Ball's perspective, reading and understanding a script involves looking for those moments "when something happens that makes or permits something else to happen. The first thing to discover is how a play goes from one place to another. Find the first event of each action, then the second, then the connection between the two. The play's journey is contained within its actions, and getting there is half the fun."


June 2015

See-through bag as equipment coverIt's in the Bag
Consider using see-through plastic trash bags to cover equipment.  With the help of scissors and tape you can easily make custom dust covers for anything from computer keyboards and monitors to printers to props to sound equipment.  For a bit less money, you can purchase regular black plastic bags, but you'll have to guess what's underneath--or put labels on them.


Any Suggestions?
Here's a surefire morale booster: put a suggestion/comment box backstage, and answer the suggestions publicly on a nearby bulletin board.  This way you provide rapid feedback and show people that management listens and responds.  The answer board could become one of the most popular spots in the building.

It Adds Up
Use an electronic postage or food scale to count large numbers of identical booklets or brochures.  Stack them on the scale until you reach one pound; then count the number.  The simple math involved in weighing a few brochures and then
multiplying can save lots of time over counting individual pieces by hand.

Put a Cork In It
Some theatres cover one wall backstage or in the green room with cork.  This permits any part of the wall to be used as a bulletin board and helps prevent the scarring of plasterboard or paneled walls.  It also cuts down on backstage

Everyone Benefits
If you plan to buy several computers for your company, offer members a chance to purchase one for home use at your company's cost.  Reason: The company receives a larger discount because more computers are purchased, and members
become a resource of people knowledgeable about operating the same computers.

Keeping Track

  • Establish a "People" file for all of the people you deal with on a regular basis.  In each person's folder (actual paper folder or in a computer file) place pertinent papers that reflect the working relationship you have with that person.  Also include information on management styles, likes and dislikes, and other facts that will help you or others deal better with that person.  This can be especially useful when asking for donations or other favors.
  • Develop a delegation book or computer file.  Whenever you delegate something to someone, make a note  This way you can periodically follow up on those things you've delegated and make sure all is going well.

A Note of Appreciation
Have some sort of company "pat-on-the-back" memo pads printed up, on which producers, directors or designers can easily and quickly write a line or two of appreciation when a staff person or volunteer has done an outstanding job.

Saving on Paper
If possible, use the same paper stock for more than one professionally printed publication or flyer. The printer may give you a quantity discount.

It's the Little Things
When writing a fundraising appeal letter, experts recommend that you don't hyphenate a word that might break at the end of a line.  Hyphenations slow the reader down.  Besides, people just don't hyphenate when writing personal letters--and your appeal should be seen as a personal one.


May 2015

Costume Treasure Trove

In operation for more than 40 years, New York City's Theatre Development Fund (TDF) Costume Collection has over 80,000 theatrical costumes available for rental to community and regional theatres, civic and religious groups, as well as schools, colleges and universities nationwide. Created in 1968 to help strengthen Broadway and Off Broadway, in particular serious dramatic plays, TDF has subsidized more than 1,000 plays and musicals, including 34 productions that later became Pulitzer Prize winners, and has developed a wide-ranging variety of programs to serve audiences and theatres.  Located within New York’s historic Kaufman Astoria Studios, the TDF Costume Collection sprawls over 16,000 square feet on the seven-building campus where numerous films and television shows are produced. You can view selected items from the TDF Costume Collection online on Facebook, FlickrTumblr, and Pinterest. But to really understand the incredible breadth of what we have available, TDF recommends that you make plans to visit the collection in person.  Click here for hours and address.

All Wet

If you need an umbrella to look as though it just came out of the rain, spatter it with a thin solution of white glue. Lights shining on the dried glue will reflect as though off wet spots. Caution: don't spatter borrowed umbrellas, since the glue is permanent.

The Eyes Have It

When making up eyes, use eyeliner to paint a small black dot at the corner of the eye nearest the nose. The result gives more impact to the eye makeup without being noticeable in itself.

Audition Magic

In an audition, says Michael Shurtleff, don't stop if you're doing badly. Instead, get angry at your reading partner, or kiss your partner and offer words of endearment. "Either action, however unsuited to the script you may think it is, will connect you with your partner, will create relationship, will renew what you're fighting for, and will interest the auditors in you. There's nothing to be gained by stopping and everything to be gained if you take a big blame-or-love risk to rescue yourself."

Red Light, Green Light

If you need to give the impression of green or red light on an actor, but don't want their features to disappear, as so often happens with these dark colors, backlight with red or green along with normal frontlighting. The result is a colored halo on the head and shoulders, which may be all you need to create the effect you want.

Oldies But Goodies

To age costumes, use candle wax at the elbows and knees to give them a worn shine. Use a hand-held cheese grater to create slightly worn places at hems, cuffs, knees. To give a suit a baggy look, place rocks in the jacket and pants pockets and steam the fabric. To give the appearance of dust, powder the garment with fuller's earth (which can be removed by washing or dry-cleaning).


April 2015

There's an Idea

A makeup idea file can be a real timesaver when you get into production of a show. A typical file would include good, crisp photographs of people, young and old, of different races, from different cultures and eras. Magazines are a good source, as are art reproductions for historical characters. (Check out second hand bookstores.) You can break up the collection into such categories as "Old Age--Male," "Old Age--Female," "Bald Heads," "Hair," "Historical," "Scars," "Noses," "Mouths and Chins." A three-ring binder with 8 1/2" x 11" transparent acetate pages works best to hold your idea file--the pictures slip in easily and the acetate protects them from dust and makeup stains.

Hats Off

During the run of a show have the actors store their hats on a head block when they are not being worn. The exception is rigid hats, such as toppers and derbies, which should be placed in hat boxes. Taking such care will lengthen the life of hats considerably.

People Power

In fundraising, remember that people give to people, not organizations, a direct mail piece or even to a building. They give to other individuals--a friend who has asked for help, a business contact, a person who inspires their confidence. Always try to make appeals as personal as possible.

The Numbers Game

Along with your rehearsal schedule include a wallet-sized piece of paper with important phone numbers that can be clipped for the cast member's wallet or purse. List a number where cast members can call to leave messages, the contact numbers of the director and stage manager, the theater (backstage) and box office.   Don't post these online unless you have a password-protected site.

Keeping It Dry

Double-check your backstage area to make sure you have a fire extinguisher that is safe for electrical fires. One theater company found that their extinguisher was water-based only after a cable shorted out. Luckily the fire was put out before someone used the extinguisher; it was only when the fire department investigated that the lack of a dry extinguisher was noted and one was installed.

Eyes Wrong

One of our members recently attended a performance in which one of the actors soon became a distracting, irksome presence. The actor in question never missed a cue, was always on mark, and was vocally and physically in character. So what was the problem? The reason was not obvious at first, but gradually the realization set in: the actor's eyes wandered constantly from actor to actor, from left to right, from audience back to the stage. Never once did they ever seem to come to light on anything for more than a few seconds. Despite the fact that everything else was in control, this one thing- -the inability to focus attention--destroyed totally any illusion that the actor was a part of the dramatic action.


February-March 2015

Longer-Lasting Costumes
Dress shields sewn into the armholes of all clothes makes for a longer life for your costumes. They can be bought in all sizes and are available for men as well; however, if you can't find the men's shields, use the largest size in women's. Perspiration not only stains costumes, it can rot fabric.

Audience Development
Looking for a way to increase audiences at your productions? Consider giving free performances of one-act plays or a musical revue in city parks, or at local shopping centers. While your audience is gathered, have company members pass among them with information about your company. Even better, have tables with sign-up sheets placed strategically about the area, so that departing audience members can leave their names and addresses (including email) for future mailings.

Scare Tactics
The best way to get over stage fright is to focus one's attention on one's acting partner, playing the scene totally to and with them. When the focus is off the audience and on the other actor, stage fright usually goes away and one's performance is enhanced considerably.

As the Day Goes On
To suggest a transition from late afternoon to evening lighting, double-hang instruments with the two basic color schemes. Blend for late afternoon,then use a long, slow fade to the evening colors.

Sound Idea
Avoid running a continuous sound effect for more than a few minutes at full volume. For example, a 20-minute scene during a thunderstorm may become tedious if sound effects are overused. In real life one is not aware of the constant sound of rain, but rather of the changes in the sound of the drops or wind velocity, or occasional thunderclaps. Good sound effects heighten the effect you want in the scene, not overwhelm it.

Renting/Leasing Space?
When negotiating for a theater space, make a note of all repairs and improvements that will be necessary to convert the space into a theater. Get estimates of the cost involved. That way you'll have an easier time negotiating for repairs and improvements with the landlord.

Paint--Wet & Dry
When using dry paints for sets, remember that water added to the pigment makes the color much darker than it will be after it dries. To avoid problems, mix the colors while still dry, noting the proportions used; then add water. Paint a test piece of wood or canvas and blow-dry. If the result is good, go ahead and mix the entire batch. Otherwise, continue the experiment. Be sure to mix more than enough paint, since it is almost impossible to match the color if you run short.

Audition Strategy
When reading for a part for which you cannot find proper motivation, consider using the desire to change your partner. The change desired must be concrete in your mind--for example, "I love you, but if you'd only..." There are any number of ways an actor can "point up" a particular word or phrase in a speech: through a rise or fall in pitch; a rise in volume, or a fall in volume followed by an increased intensity; slowing down; a movement or gesture just before the word or phrase; or even by elongating vowel sounds ("Oh, on the caaaaahntrary").


January 2015

Backstage Explorers
In order to attract more backstage help, some theatre companies offer workshops it calls "Discovery Days" on two successive Saturdays each year. On the first Saturday, attendees can meet and talk with several veteran technicians and other volunteers in the scene shop, enjoy a light continental breakfast, and choose three areas of interest for the day--sound, lighting, props, costumes, hair and makeup, scenery, stage tech, and auditioning. Each session might last 45 minutes, and include an overview of the activities and responsibilities of each area. Attendees would receive hands-on experience in running lights, preparing props, building scenery, or altering a costume. On the second Saturday, attendees might choose one area of interest from day one and spend a full morning learning the specifics of that area under the guidance of veteran technical staff and volunteers. 
Not for Everyone
In the newsletter of the Minnesota Association of Community Theatre, Julie Rae Patterson-Pratt, director and assistant professor of theater at the University of Minnesota, Morris, described a method she had used to publicize a controversial play. Instead of using phrases such as "contains adult themes and language," which she feels tend to be off-putting, she came up with "This show is not for everyone." This tag line was accompanied by more positive word choices in describing the show's appeal--such as "sophisticated," "out there," and "those looking for challenge." She says the new spin did exactly what she wanted it to do, and as a bonus, spurred the sale of tickets, because people wanted to be identified with the type of audience that would appreciate a show that was "not for everyone."
Families That Play Together
Studies show that teenagers and the adults they live with spend very little time together. The kids have busy schedules, their parents are absorbed by jobs, and the lines of communication between the two are often tenuous. In an attempt to bring parents and children together, the Madison [WI] Repertory Theatre inaugurated Target Family Night at the Rep for three shows each season. With a corporate grant, the Rep's new program enabled high school students and their parents or guardians to attend a play together at no charge. The tickets, which were for preview performances, were distributed through community agencies.
Stay Centered
Whatever overall marketing and PR strategy a theatre company selects, it is important to remember that it must fit with the mission of the organization, explains William J. Byrnes in his book, Management and the Arts. Care must be taken to avoid shifting the organization away from its mission to meet a market strategy. A sideline operation can be a healthy source of revenue, and a company must resist the temptation to overemphasize the operation's importance in the marketing and branding of the organization.



December 2014

Under the Weather
Bad weather sometimes means canceled performances. In colder climates, many theatre companies have a snow/rain check policy. Should the weather become disruptive some companies cancel a performance for the safety of its patrons, volunteers, and staff. If this happens, a company will announce the cancellation on local radio stations. It then issues rain checks to those patrons who have already picked up and paid for their tickets to that performance. Patrons must, however, present those tickets at the box office within one week of the canceled performance in order to receive a rain check. The check may be used for reservations for another performance during the run, or if that is impossible, any remaining show in the season. Other theatres require patrons to call the box office within two days of the canceled performance regarding replacement tickets. If the company does not cancel a performance, but bad weather keeps a patron from attending, the patron must notify the box office by 5:00 p.m. the day of the performance, in which case most companies will cancel the reservation. If not, the tickets are considered sold and nonrefundable.
Two Survey Tips
Two suggestions from the experts for conducting written surveys:
  • Limit the number of fill-in-the-blank questions, and replace with those that can be answered by circling yes or no, or a series of numbers indicating a range of opinion. You'll increase your response. One survey company doubled the response to 30 questions by reducing fill-in-the-blank responses from 15 to only two.
  • When surveying about your season or services, ask respondents what they liked most about these. It not only helps you continue to emphasize things that people like, but it may provide you with testimonials you can use in brochures or other marketing pieces.
Dealing With Conflict
To handle conflict among your cast or crew:
  • Ask those who disagree to paraphrase one another's comments. This may help them learn if they really understand one another.
  • Work out a compromise. Agree on the underlying source of conflict, then engage in give-and-take, and finally agree on a solution.
  • Ask each person to list what the other side should do. Exchange lists, select a compromise all are willing to accept, and test the compromise to see if it meshes with the goals of the group as a whole.
  • Have the sides each write 10 questions for their opponents. This will allow them to signal their major concerns about the other side's position. And the answers may lead to a compromise.
  • Help people understand they sometimes have to admit they're wrong. Help them save face by convincing them that changing a position may well show strength.
  • Respect the experts in the group. Give their opinions more weight when the conflict involves their expertise, but don't rule out conflicting opinions.


November 2014

Costume Trickery
You can darken tan leather belts and shoes by wiping them with a cloth dipped in ammonia. Apply the ammonia as evenly as possible to avoid leaving streaks on the weather. (Do this outside or in a well-ventilated area, since ammonia fumes are irritating to eyes and nose.)

Families That Play Together
Bringing families to the theater is the idea behind a number of well-received programs around the country.  Two decades ago, "Family Week at the Theatre" (now called Stages Festival) became the first statewide celebration of theater for New Jersey's young people and their families. During the first week of March, which is also Arts In Education Month, New Jersey's professional theater community has offered free and discounted performances, workshops, play readings and behind-the-scenes events for all ages. Many theaters host backstage tours, workshops, open rehearsals, and other free events designed for multi-generational participation, including free performances.  In Louisville, Kentucky, Stage One offers a four-person Family Pass for $125 ("Flexible tickets - a $350 value") and a two-person pass for $65 (a $175 value).  Pass holders may reserve the respective amount of tickets for any of StageOne’s four Mainstage Productions, Exclusive Member Movies Series, or StoryTeller Events.  They also receive exclusive discounts & pre-sale offers to other family friendly performances held at The Kentucky Center. [More...]

Take It Off
Forget scraping and soaking when price tags, stickers, and decals won't come off equipment or other recently purchased items. Instead, tackle the problem with solvents designed for the job, such as Goof Off or Goo Gone. They not only lift off stickers (and the gummy residue they leave behind), but also remove crayon scribbles, dried glue, chewing gum, tape, and tar from most objects. (They also remove paint, so don't use on walls.) Both products are sold in hardware and paint stores, and online.

Affordable Receptions
If you're planning to hold a special event somewhere outside your theater, you know that most hotels and country clubs charge a lot, and often require that you use their equally expensive in-house catering services. Instead, consider renting space for your reception in a public or historic building, a local park, a botanical garden, a museum, or a university. The fee for use of such spaces is often minimal, and you can order food and decorations from your own sources. While it's true that some of these facilities have special requirements (a historical building, for example, may not allow you to attach decorations to the wall), they're often more understanding of the fundraising needs of other nonprofit organizations.




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